What is renal polycyssis?

Renal polycysmosis is a genetic (autonomous-dominant) disease that manifests itself in the formation of multiple cysts in both kidneys. The progression of renal polycystic disease leads to the development of chronic renal failure.

Types of renal polycyssis

Depending on the method of inheritance, two variants of the disease are distinguished:

Autosomal-dominant renal polycyssis – manifests itself between the ages of 30 and 50. Cysts in the liver, pancreas, aneurysms of cerebral arteries, diverticulum of the large intestine, mitral valve insuffication can also be observed.

Autosomal recessive renal polycysm – due to a defect in the 6th chromosome. Clinically manifested in infancy. It is combined with congenital liver fibrosis.

Symptoms in renal polycyssis

Many people do not have characteristic symptoms of polycyssis until they reach middle age. When symptoms begin, they may include:

  • abdominal pain
  • headache
  • back pain
  • back pain
  • blood in the urine
  • frequent nocturnal urination
  • high blood pressure
  • joint pain
  • painful menstruation
  • infection of the kidneys
  • renal concrements

Diagnosis of renal polycystosis

For the diagnosis of renal polycystosis, the following studies are carried out:

Complete blood count – it identifies an increase in leukocytes, which may indicate an inflammatory process

General analysis of urine – it is possible to determine the presence of leukocytes – inflammatory cells, erythrocytes – blood cells, protein. Determination of the level of nitrogen toxins – creatinine, urea. At the level of their increase, a person can judge the development of renal failure.

Ultrasound – the diagnosis of polycystosis is usually clear – many “bubbles” filled with liquid content are visible.

Computed tomography – to check for stones and infected cysts or masses in the liver, because cysts often appear not only in the kidneys, but also in the liver.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING – to measure cysts and kidney volume, which is important for predicting the risk of progression to chronic renal failure.

Treatment in renal polycyssis

Treatment consists in the adequate treatment of arterial hypertension, prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections and the use of non-toxic kidney medications.

Drug treatment – the main goal is to slow the progression of renal failure. Medical treatment of arterial hypertension, of an arisen urinary infection is carried out. A low-protein mode in azotemia is observed.

Surgical treatment – it is applied in severe pain syndrome in connection with the significant dimensions of cysts, in the presence of concrements in the kidneys (kidney stone disease), with severely impaired kidney function and inability to optimal functioning of the kidneys.

Dialysis treatment – it is necessary with severely impaired renal function and inability to perform the normal processes and functions for the kidney. Renal dialysis is two main types:

  • haemodialysis (mandatory in the relevant medical establishment)
  • peritoneal dialysis (can be performed at the patient’s home)

Dialysis provides purification of blood from toxins and waste metabolic products, but is only a temporary solution, usually appointed until a suitable donor for kidney transplantation is found

Kidney transplantation – in the final stages of the disease, kidney function is so severely damaged that an organ transplant with a suitable donor is required. Finding a compatible and suitable donor is a difficult task, and until then dialysis is applied to maintain the patient.